The 1977 Swedish Grand Prix, otherwise officially known as the XIII Sveriges Grand Prix, was the eighth round of the 1977 FIA Formula One World Championship, staged at the Scandinavian Raceway on the 19 June, 1977. The race would be remembered for a dominant display by Mario Andretti, only for a late twist to rob the American of victory.
Andretti's domination had begun in qualifying, with the American getting a set of "special" Goodyear tyres to claim pole, a fraction ahead of John Watson. James Hunt was next, sharing the second row with Championship leader Jody Scheckter, while title protagonist Niki Lauda found himself down in fifteenth.
Indeed, the only breach to the Andretti sweep came at the start of the race, for Watson and Scheckter went charging past the American at the start. The rest of the field swept into the first corner behind Hunt, while Lauda made no progress from the back of the field.
Andretti would catch and pass Scheckter before the end of the opening lap, and was right on the back of Watson's Brabham-Alfa Romeo as the Brit crossed the line. Hunt continued to run in fourth, already slipping back and with a large queue forming up behind his McLaren.
Andretti seized the lead on the second tour, and would duly establish a small lead over Watson in the early stages. Scheckter was able to keep pace in the Wolf, while Hunt continued to act as a road block in fourth. Indeed, there would be very little change to the order over the following laps, with even mechanical woes few and far between.
The order would, however, go through a drastic change on lap 30, with Scheckter taking himself out of the race by lunging into Watson. The Brabham was left with minor damage, but withdrew into the pits, while Scheckter was out on the spot, handing Andretti a commanding advantage.
Behind, Jacques Laffite would begin a sudden spurt up the field, the little Ligier-Matra climbing from sixth to second in a little over five laps. He duly went sprinting off the chase Andretti, fifteen seconds up the road, while Hunt was left to ineffectively fend off teammate Jochen Mass and Carlos Reutemann.
With two laps to go it seemed as if Laffite would run out of time, until Andretti came charging into the pits with a fuel metering issue. The Lotus was quickly given a top-up of fuel, but the damage had been done, with the #5 car sprinting back onto the circuit outside of the points.
That late drama allowed Laffite to claim a maiden victory for himself and Ligier, while Mass and Reutemann completed the podium. Patrick Depailler was next ahead of a recovering Watson, who also picked his way through the Hunt queue mid-race. Andretti, meanwhile, would flash past the chequered flag in sixth, scant reward for a race in which the American had dominated since the first practice session.
The 1977 edition of Formula One headed to the Scandinavian Raceway near Anderstorp, Sweden for the eighth round of the season, an event which received a mixed reception both inside and outside of the paddock. While the attendance was set to sore given Gunnar Nilsson's recent form, the teams themselves were less impressed with the flat, undramatic layout. Regardless, there would be a healthy entry list submitted for the race, with privateers and constructors set to fight it out on the Anderstorp airfield.
Arguably the biggest news ahead of the Swedish Grand Prix would involve Nilsson's team, Team Lotus, although it was not wholly to the Swede's benefit. Indeed, it was revealed that long-standing partners Ford Cosworth had built an "ultimate" version of their DFV engine for the Lotus squad, although only one example had been built in time for fight in Anderstorp. That engine was handed to team leader Mario Andretti, while Nilsson was given one of the new, but less spectacular, "super Cosworths".
Other "super Cosworths" were to be found at McLaren and Tyrrell, although they, like Lotus, only had one version of the engine. For McLaren it was a simple decision to hand that engine over to defending World Champion James Hunt, who raced the M26 once again, while Jochen Mass was left with his ageing M23 once again. Tyrrell, meanwhile, would ultimately give their "super Cosworth" to Patrick Depailler, while Ronnie Peterson continued to use the newest of the P34s instead.
A fourth variant of the Cosworth DFV was also to be found in Sweden, this example sitting in between the "Super" and the "Ultimate" editions. This was handed to Canadian effort Wolf and Jody Scheckter, largely due to the South African's lead in the Championship. They were also promised the next "ultimate Cosworth" unit once it had been proven at Lotus.
Likewise, as Cosworth feared the rise of Matra and Alfa Romeo, tyre suppliers Goodyear arrived in Sweden with a variety of compounds produced in the factory in Wolverhampton, UK. The softest sets were given to their biggest customers Lotus, McLaren, Ferrari and Tyrrell, amid rumours that some were courting imminent arrivals Michelin. The French tyre manufacturer had already guaranteed at least one high-profile customer ahead of their impending arrival in the form of Renault, and were looking to break Goodyear's monopoly in the series.
On the subject of Ferrari, they arrived with no major changes to their cars, despite both Niki Lauda and Carlos Reutemann having relied on luck as much as outright speed, to claim strong results as the season approached half-distance. Indeed, they looked likely to be overhauled by the unchanged Brabham-Alfa Romeos of John Watson and Hans-Joachim Stuck, which were given a different version of the Goodyear compounds to everyone else. The 12 cylinder section of the grid would be completed by Ligier-Matra, back with their single effort for Jacques Laffite, and the miserable BRM effort for local racer Conny Andersson.
Elsewhere, March were back in numbers once again, led by disillusioned factory duo Alex Ribeiro and Ian Scheckter. They were joined by a two pronged March effort from RAM Racing, who fielded Boy Hayje alongside Finnish racer Mikko Kozarowitzky in their ex-factory cars from 1976. Arturo Merzario had the newest 761B being rebuilt, so it was doubtful as to whether he could make the race, while Williams Grand Prix Engineering had their modified chassis prepared for Patrick Nève once again.
There were some changes at Shadow, where team boss Jackie Oliver had been called up from their reserve roster to partner Alan Jones, for recent acquisition Riccardo Patrese had other commitments. This was a contrast to the Surtees effort, which retained their line-up of Larry Perkins and Vittorio Brambilla, while Hesketh were likewise running their new standard duo of Harald Ertl and Rupert Keegan. Their third factory supported car was also in attendance, this timed loaned out to Mexican rookie Héctor Rebaque.
Completing the "factory" entries would be Ensign and Fittipaldi, which were both, unsurprisingly, fielding their usual drivers Clay Regazzoni and Emerson Fittipaldi respectively. That left David Purley in the LEC, Brett Lunger and Emilio de Villota in their ex-factory McLarens, and Jean-Pierre Jarier in the German run Penske to complete the field. An older Penske was also entered for the race by Danish racer Jac Nellemann, although neither he, nor his car, would appear during practice.
Into the Championship and Nilsson's maiden victory in Belgium had propelled the young Swede into the top five in the Championship, although he remained some way behind lead protagonist Jody Scheckter. Indeed, the South African racer had Nilsson to thank for holding his lead in Zolder, for Lauda had closed the gap to just a single point with his second place. Reutemann and Andretti, a point apart but eight behind Lauda, while defending Champion Hunt had slipped to sixth.
As ever it was Ferrari who continued to lead the way in the International Cup for Constructors ahead of the trip to Scandinavia, leaving Zolder with a healthy thirteen point lead. The revived Team Lotus-Ford Cosworth team were now the Italian firm's closest challengers, a point ahead of new-boys Wolf-Ford Cosworth, while McLaren-Ford Cosworth had continued to slip away in fourth. Tyrrell-Ford Cosworth, meanwhile, were up to fifth after Peterson's podium, while Surtees-Ford Cosworth had become the eleventh different constructor to score in 1977 with Brambilla's first point of the season.
The full entry list for the 1977 Swedish Grand Prix is outlined below:
It proved to be a warm couple of days in Anderstorp during practice/qualifying, with the now standard pattern of three "timed", and a lone "untimed" session allowing teams to get a lot of running in before the race. Friday would host two of the "timed" periods, while Saturday morning would see qualifying conclude in the afternoon after the single "untimed" session. Throughout, the 32 strong entry list would be fighting to claim one of the 24 grid slots on offer, with the elite hoping to beat the circuit record of 1:25.659, set by Jody Scheckter in 1976.
The opening session of the weekend would be dominated by a huge accident for Emerson Fittipaldi, who escaped without injury after completely destroying the new Fittipaldi. The Brazilian was charging along the back straight when the car suddenly snapped sideways, spitting Fittipaldi straight into the barriers. The car was left in a sorry state with shattered monocoque, although the double World Champion would complete the day's running in the spare car.
Elsewhere, Mario Andretti set the pace in the Lotus, the American topping the time sheets as the only man in the 1:25.000s. James Hunt, in a somewhat happier mood than of late, was his closest challenger, ultimately ending the morning with a 1:26.052, with Scheckter a couple of tenths back in third. Gunnar Nilsson was best of the Swedes in fourth, eight tenths behind teammate Andretti, while the Ferraris failed to break into the 1:26.000s.
Into the Friday afternoon session and it was John Watson who came to the fore, the Brit recording a 1:25.545 in his Brabham-Alfa Romeo to hold provisional pole overnight. Andretti failed to improve, meaning Scheckter was able to move ahead of him on the overnight timesheet, becoming only the third driver to break into the 1:25.000s as he did so. Hunt would again fall shy of the mark as would Patrick Depailler, while both Niki Lauda and Carlos Reutemann found themselves out of the fight once again.
Friday night and the "untimed" session allowed teams to prepare their cars for the final "timed" runout on Saturday afternoon, with conditions ideal for a fight for pole. Goodyear released its softest compounds ahead of the session, issuing them to Lotus, Ferrari, McLaren, Brabham, Tyrrell and Ligier-Matra, despite the latter's complaints that the tyres were burning up after only a handful of laps. The fight to qualify was also up in the air at the back of the field, a 1:30.000 seeming the likely cut off to make it into the top 24.
The pole fight would ultimately go on into the final moments of the day, with Andretti slithering his Lotus around to claim a 1:25.404, ousting Watson from top spot as the Brit failed to improve. Hunt was next having topped the session's time sheets for most of the afternoon, while Scheckter just fell shy of the defending World Champion's mark. Hans-Joachim Stuck underlined the natural pace of the Brabham-Alfas by qualifying in fifth ahead of Patrick Depailler, while Nilsson edged Laffite to complete the top eight.
Elsewhere, the Hesketh duo Harald Ertl and Rupert Keegan left it late to make the cut, the pair scything across the line in the dying moments to grab 23rd and 24th on the grid respectively. Their efforts relegated the factory March of Alex Ribeiro, as well as Emilio de Villota's Spanish run McLaren. They were joined by Larry Perkins, Boy Hayje, Héctor Rebaque, Conny Andersson and Mikko Kozarowitzky on the sidelines, while neither Arturo Merzario nor Jac Nellemann materialised during practice.
The full qualifying results for the 1977 Swedish Grand Prix are outlined below:
|1||5||Mario Andretti||Lotus-Ford Cosworth||1:25.889||1:26.071||1:25.404||—|
|2||7||John Watson||Brabham-Alfa Romeo||1:26.699T||1:25.545||1:26.213||+0.141s|
|3||1||James Hunt||McLaren-Ford Cosworth||1:26.952||1:26.094||1:25.626||+0.222s|
|4||20||Jody Scheckter||Wolf-Ford Cosworth||1:26.343T||1:25.681||1:25.858T||+0.277s|
|5||8||Hans-Joachim Stuck||Brabham-Alfa Romeo||1:26.619||1:26.461T||1:26.127||+0.723s|
|6||4||Patrick Depailler||Tyrrell-Ford Cosworth||1:26.921||1:26.209||1:26.471||+0.805s|
|7||6||Gunnar Nilsson||Lotus-Ford Cosworth||1:26.604||1:27.028||1:26.227||+0.823s|
|9||2||Jochen Mass||McLaren-Ford Cosworth||1:27.935||1:28.384T||1:26.380||+0.976s|
|10||3||Ronnie Peterson||Tyrrell-Ford Cosworth||1:27.321T||1:26.383||1:26.450||+0.979s|
|11||17||Alan Jones||Shadow-Ford Cosworth||1:26.763||1:27.146||1:26.529||+1.125s|
|13||19||Vittorio Brambilla||Surtees-Ford Cosworth||1:27.655||1:26.573||1:26.956||+1.169s|
|14||22||Clay Regazzoni||Ensign-Ford Cosworth||1:27.628||1:26.810||1:26.616||+1.212s|
|16||16||Jackie Oliver||Shadow-Ford Cosworth||1:28.176||1:27.499||1:27.492||+2.088s|
|17||34||Jean-Pierre Jarier||Penske-Ford Cosworth||1:27.537||1:27.588||1:27.869||+2.133s|
|18||28||Emerson Fittipaldi||Fittipaldi-Ford Cosworth||1:28.238T||1:27.620T||1:27.927T||+2.216s|
|19||31||David Purley||LEC-Ford Cosworth||1:27.991||1:27.716||1:27.960||+2.312s|
|20||27||Patrick Nève||March-Ford Cosworth||1:29.179||1:28.100||1:27.758||+2.354s|
|21||10||Ian Scheckter||March-Ford Cosworth||1:27.806||1:28.259||1:38.818||+2.402s|
|22||30||Brett Lunger||McLaren-Ford Cosworth||1:28.678||1:28.234||1:28.205||+2.801s|
|23||25||Harald Ertl||Hesketh-Ford Cosworth||1:30.378||1:29.847||1:28.377||+2.973s|
|24||24||Rupert Keegan||Hesketh-Ford Cosworth||1:29.004||1:30.827||1:28.404||+3.000s|
|DNQ||9||Alex Ribeiro||March-Ford Cosworth||1:28.566||1:28.463||1:28.555||+3.059s|
|DNQ||36||Emilio de Villota||McLaren-Ford Cosworth||1:29.597||1:29.144||1:28.708||+3.304s|
|DNQ||18||Larry Perkins||Surtees-Ford Cosworth||1:29.175T||1:28.766T||1:28.812||+3.362s|
|DNQ||33||Boy Hayje||March-Ford Cosworth||1:39.500||1:29.541||1:29.086||+3.682s|
|DNQ||39||Héctor Rebaque||Hesketh-Ford Cosworth||1:29.889||1:32.297||1:30.814||+4.485s|
|DNQ||32||Mikko Kozarowitzky||March-Ford Cosworth||1:32.177||1:31.435||1:31.079||+5.675s|
|WD||37||Arturo Merzario||March-Ford Cosworth||Withdrawn|
|WD||38||Jac Nellemann||Penske-Ford Cosworth||Withdrawn|
- Bold indicates a driver's best/qualifying time.
- T Indicates a test/spare car.
Raceday proved to be another warm, dry, affair, meaning the only concerns for the drivers were with overheating tyres, particularly as Goodyear had brought a softer compound for the race. Warm-up passed without issue, although there was a surprise in store when Jacques Laffite topped to timesheet, the Frenchman lapping significantly faster than pole sitter Mario Andretti. Regardless, it would be Andretti who led the field slowly around from the "dummy" to the proper grid for the start, with 24 engines roaring in anticipation of the starter's lights.
Ultimately, it was John Watson who made the best getaway from the grid as the lights changed, the Brit blasting ahead of Andretti to sweep into the lead before the first corner. Jody Scheckter followed him through, sprinting away from James Hunt before slithering around Andretti around the outside of turn one, with the Brit getting caught behind the American. That battle allowed Hans-Joachim Stuck to briefly get ahead of the #1 McLaren, although Hunt quickly got back ahead into turn two.
It would take Andretti less than half a lap to exact his revenge on Scheckter, the American dancing his Lotus past the Wolf as they blasted past the pits. The American quickly managed to latch onto the back of Watson down the back straight, and was tucked under the rear-wing of the Brabham-Alfa Romeo across the line. Scheckter followed them through ahead of Hunt and Stuck, with Patrick Depailler and home hero Gunnar Nilsson leading the rest at the end of the opening tour.
It was a case of déjà vu on the second tour for Andretti, as the American sent his Lotus scything past Watson at Gislaved to snatch the lead, a repeat of his move on Scheckter. This was quickly translated into a small lead over the Brit, denying Watson the chance to respond at the end of the back straight, with both a small way ahead of Scheckter. It was not all smiles for Lotus, however, as Nilsson seemed to be struggling with an issue in his car, and so was powerless to deny a move from Jochen Mass at the end of the very same straight.
The following laps would see Andretti disappear at the front of the field, leaving Watson to lead a five car scrap for second. The American racer's teammate Nilsson would not be among them, with the Swede tumbling down the order with a handling issue. He ultimately brought the #6 Lotus in at the end of lap six with a loose wheel and broken nose, the latter wound the result of getting rear-ended by Jacques Laffite, who hit the Swede with enough force to launch the Lotus into the air, albeit briefly.
Ronnie Peterson was another early pit caller, although his ignition issue on lap seven ultimately proved terminal to his pursuit of a home win. On track, meanwhile, the Swede's teammate Depailler would be busy in the Watson train, taking fifth away from Stuck as Mass drew onto his tail. The #2 McLaren duly followed the Tyrrell through, leaving Stuck's seemingly troubled Brabham to tumble into the sights of Carlos Reutemann.
Indeed, by this stage the Watson train was beginning to break up, with the Ulsterman, and Scheckter, pulling clear of Hunt, Depailler and Mass. Andretti continued to dominate out front, just under five seconds clear with ten laps gone, while Stuck's race seemed to be coming to an end as he tumbled down the order. He soon fell to both Reutemann and Laffite, with Niki Lauda the next man to line up a move on the ailing German.
However, Lauda never got the chance to pounce on the struggling Stuck, for the Austrian pitched himself into a spin at Gislaved, all on his own. Jean-Pierre Jarier, Jackie Oliver and Clay Regazzoni all slipped past before Lauda recovered, with the Austrian lacking the confidence in his car to chase them down. Teammate Reutemann, meanwhile, was having a more successful time further up the order, although the #12 Ferrari was coming under fire from a now charging Laffite in the Ligier-Matra.
Indeed, Laffite became the centre of attention as the race wore on, the Frenchman weaving his way past Reutemann before launching a series of attacks on Mass ahead. His efforts would, however, be overshadowed by a rather clumsy incident up the road, as Scheckter tried an ambitious, and late, dive on Watson in Gislaved on lap thirty. The Ulsterman, unaware that the Wolf was trying to pounce down the inside of the left hander, pulling right across the path of Scheckter.
Watson was sent into a spin, stopping in the middle of the track as the Hunt peleton thundered into view. They flooded either side of the stranded Brabham, although Watson was able to recover and loop back into the pits for checks just after they went past. Scheckter, meanwhile, was left with ruined front right suspension, meaning the Wolf was out on the spot.
Watson would rejoin from his stop down in seventh, just ahead of teammate Stuck, although the German's ruined front tyres were about to see him swallowed up by Regazzoni. Up ahead, meanwhile, Laffite had seen the Watson/Scheckter accident as a means to make it onto the podium, and duly redoubled his efforts to take Mass. The #2 McLaren was able to resist for a time, however, with Hunt likewise fending off Depailler for second just ahead.
Ultimately, there would be no stopping Laffite in his pursuit of a podium finish, with the Ligier scything past Mass' McLaren into Gislaved on lap 38. This was followed by an identical move on Depailler a lap later, before the Ligier settled its sights on the gearbox of Hunt. The Brit was famed for his defensive and offensive driving, but with half of the race gone his tyres were well past their best.
Indeed, it took Laffite just two laps to smuggle his Ligier into second, the Frenchman once again deploying his favoured dive into Gislaved to get the job done. Hunt was powerless to prevent the Ligier escaping, and duly gathered himself together to prepare to resist Depailler once again. Indeed, the Frenchman was soon back in the McLaren's mirrors, although Depailler had his own troubles lurking in the form of Mass and Reutemann.
It was a ferocious fight for third that emerged over the following laps, with Mass and Reutemann elbowing their way past Depailler after the Frenchman failed with a move on Hunt. After a couple of laps, Hunt decided to wave his teammate through at the end of the straight, only to have Reutemann scythe past as well on the brakes into the penultimate corner. Frustrated, Hunt tried his best to get back at the Ferrari but simply lacked the grip, meaning he, once again, had to prepare to resist the impending attentions of Depailler. His efforts failed however, and Hunt was once again dumped down two positions in the space of a single corner, as the Frenchman elbowed his way through with enough force to allow Watson to slip past the McLaren on the exit of Gislaved.
Hunt's race ultimately came to its effective end on lap 52, with the Brit stopping for fresh tyres having seen Regazzoni in the Ensign appear in his mirrors. It was small consolation that his disheartened rival Lauda was out, the Austrian deciding on his third and final stop that his handling issues were incurable. Vittorio Brambilla was soon to join the Austrian on the sidelines with his recurring fuel issue, while Ian Scheckter was forced to stop his factory March after a suspension joint failed.
On track, meanwhile, Laffite was chipping away into Andretti's lead, although the American was cruising around in the Lotus and seemed to have enough pace to fend him off. Yet, with fifteen laps to go all was not well in the #5 car, for the fuel light in the American's cockpit had come on a lot earlier than expected. Noticing this, Andretti began to coast around more than he had before, allowing Laffite to take more and more time out of the American's fifteen second lead.
With five laps to go Laffite was just five seconds away from the Lotus, with Andretti staring at his fuel gauge as much as he was looking at the circuit. As their fight brewed, the second Lotus of Nilsson was pulled out of the race with a broken wheel, while Stuck was carving his way back up the order on his fresh tyres. Hunt and Brett Lunger would be powerless to resist the charging Brabham while, just ahead, Regazzoni and the veteran Oliver engaged in a ferocious duel at the lower end of the top ten.
Back with Andretti and the American was in serious trouble with three laps to go, a cough from his Cosworth at the end of the back straight signalling that the Lotus was running on fumes. That, ultimately, proved to be the case, for Andretti came barrelling into the pits on the 70th lap for a quick top up, before charging back onto the circuit having received 5 litres of fuel. Yet, no matter how quickly the Lotus crew had worked, Andretti was to rejoin down in sixth, as Laffite was suddenly told that he was leading.
With that the race was run, with Laffite sweeping home to claim a maiden victory, although the Frenchman was reluctant to believe he had done so with the little Ligier. Mass was next ahead of Reutemann, while Depailler managed to fend off Watson for fourth, with the Brabham still carrying its wounds from the Scheckter incident. Next across the line was Andretti, who was later told that a slight knock on a switch had caused his engine to run in "rich" for most of the race. A point seemed scant reward for a dominant display, although neither he, nor Lotus, were upset that the victory had gone to Laffite's Ligier.
The full results for the 1977 Swedish Grand Prix are outlined below:
- * Nilsson was still classified despite retiring as he had completed 90% of the race distance.
- Ronnie Peterson started his 100th Grand Prix.
- 50th and final start for Jackie Oliver.
- It was also Oliver's first start since the 1973 United States Grand Prix.
- Twentieth entry for Brett Lunger.
- Fifth pole position for Mario Andretti.
- Maiden victory for Jacques Laffite.
- Ligier scored their first victory as a constructor.
- Carlos Reutemann scored the 230th podium finish for Ferrari.
It was status quo at the top of the Championship after the Swedish Grand Prix, with none of the major contenders scoring big points. As such it was still Jody Scheckter leading Niki Lauda by a solitary point, with Carlos Reutemann and Mario Andretti inching their way closer to the fight. Jochen Mass moved into the top five, moving ahead of Gunnar Nilsson, while race winner Jacques Laffite shot into the top ten.
Likewise there had been little change in the International Cup for Constructors, although Ferrari had technically managed to extend their lead to sixteen points. Lotus-Ford Cosworth remained their closest challengers, two ahead of Wolf-Ford Cosworth, while McLaren-Ford Cosworth remained cut adrift in fourth. Tyrrell-Ford Cosworth likewise remained a distant fifth, while Ligier-Matra were finally on the board in seventh.
Images and Videos:
- F1-history, 'Jacques Laffite (Sweden 1977)', deviantart.com, (DeviantArt, Inc., 30/05/2013), https://f1-history.deviantart.com/art/Jacques-Laffite-Sweden-1977-374869845, (Accessed 13/04/2018)
- ↑ 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.38 1.39 1.40 1.41 1.42 1.43 1.44 1.45 1.46 1.47 1.48 1.49 1.50 1.51 1.52 1.53 1.54 1.55 1.56 1.57 1.58 1.59 1.60 8. Sweden 1977', statsf1.com, (Stats F1, 2015), http://www.statsf1.com/en/1977/suede.aspx, (Accessed 13/04/2018)
- ↑ 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 'GRAND PRIX RESULTS: SWEDISH GP, 1977', grandprix.com, (Inside F1 Inc., 2015), http://www.grandprix.com/gpe/rr288.html, (Accessed 13/04/2018)
- ↑ 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 3.25 3.26 3.27 3.28 3.29 3.30 3.31 3.32 3.33 3.34 3.35 3.36 3.37 3.38 3.39 3.40 3.41 3.42 3.43 3.44 3.45 3.46 3.47 3.48 3.49 3.50 3.51 D.S.J., 'The Swedish Grand Prix: A very good race', motorsportmagazine.com, (Motor Sport, 01/07/1977), https://www.motorsportmagazine.com/archive/article/july-1977/25/swedish-grand-prix, (Accessed 30/04/2018)
- ↑ 'Sweden 1977: Entrants', statsf1.com, (Stats F1, 2015), http://www.statsf1.com/en/1977/suede/engages.aspx, (Accessed 13/04/2018)
- ↑ 'Sweden 1977: Qualifications', statsf1.com, (Stats F1, 2015), http://www.statsf1.com/en/1977/suede/qualification.aspx, (Accessed 01/05/2018)
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 'Sweden 1977: Result', statsf1.com, (Stats F1, 2015), http://www.statsf1.com/en/1977/suede/classement.aspx, (Accessed 01/05/2018)
- ↑ '1977 Swedish GP: Overview', chicanef1.com, (Chicane F1, 2018), http://www.chicanef1.com/racetit.pl?year=1977&gp=Swedish%20GP&r=1, (Accessed 13/04/2018)
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